You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.

Science

How can the sky be blue one day and stormy the next? Why do heavy objects tend to fall downwards when dropped? How are birds able to fly (and why can’t I do the same?)? Human beings have long been curious about the world in which we live, striving to identify connections among the phenomenons we witness and to understand how it all works. The field of science has developed over many centuries as a way of studying and understanding the world, beginning with the primitive stage of simply noting important regularities in nature and continuing through the rise of modern science. The modern-day sciences cover a vast range of fields, including biology, chemistry, meteorology, astronomy, physics, and much more.
Browse Subcategories

Featured content, July 12, 2021

Playing with Wildfire: 5 Amazing Adaptations of Pyrophytic Plants
The burning question: How do plants survive wildfires?
List / Science
Forest fire burning trees and grasses.  (flames, smoke, combustion)
The Anthropocene Epoch: Adding Humans to the Chart of Geologic Time
On August 29, 2016, the Anthropocene Working Group recommended that the Anthropocene Epoch be made an official geologic unit.
Companion / Science
Thermonuclear hydrogen bomb, code-named MIKE, detonated in the Marshall Islands in the fall of 1952. Photo taken at a height of 12,000 feet, 50 miles from the detonation site. (Photo 6 of a series of 8) Atomic bomb explosion nuclear energy hydrogen energy
How Deadly Is Quicksand?
Quicksand is a staple of adventure movies, but how dangerous is it in real life?
Demystified / Science
Illustration for Demystified "How Dangerous is Quicksand"
Which Animal Is the Smartest?
A puzzle only a human animal can solve. (Probably.)
#WTFact / Science
White goat with blue sky. Farm animal
physical science
physical science, the systematic study of the inorganic world, as distinct from the study of the organic world, which is...
Encyclopedia / Science
Large Hadron Collider
space exploration
space exploration, the investigation, by means of crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, of the reaches of the universe beyond Earth’s...
Encyclopedia / Science
astronaut outside the International Space Station
mathematics
mathematics, the science of structure, order, and relation that has evolved from elemental practices of counting, measuring,...
Encyclopedia / Science
Babylonian mathematical tablet
Philosophy of science
Philosophy of science, the study, from a philosophical perspective, of the elements of scientific inquiry. This article discusses...
Encyclopedia / Science
Aristotle

Science Quizzes

Humpback whale breaching out of the ocean. (sea mammal; ocean mammal)
Fishes vs. Mammals
Fishes and mammals are obviously different, right? Then you should have no problem acing this quiz. Test your knowledge about...
Group of Homosapiens, Australopithecus afarensis, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, and Neanderthal.
Australopithecus vs. Homo
Were Neanderthals of the genus Homo? What about the famous fossil woman “Lucy”? Test your knowledge of human evolution with...
This artist's concept illustrates Kepler-16b, the first planet known to definitively orbit two stars -- what's called a circumbinary planet. The planet, which can be seen in the foreground, was discovered by NASA's Kepler mission. The two orbiting stars r
Extrasolar Planets
There are thousands of planets outside our solar system. Test your knowledge about them with this quiz.
Bongo antelopes, Striped antelope called bongos live in the thick rain forests in the southern part of the Central African Republic.
What Kind of Animal?
What do you know about animal nomenclature? Take this quiz and find out.
Elementary Particles series. Interplay of abstract fractal forms on the subject of nuclear physics, science and graphic design. Quantum wave, quantum mechanics
Quantum Mechanics
Think you know about quantum mechanics? Take this quiz. No points will be awarded for answers in a superposition of a right...
Boomslang snake (Dispholidus typus) Venomous, poisonous. Africa.
Venom and Poison
Think you know about poisons? Take this venomous quiz to test your knowledge.
Diversity among heteropterans. lace bug, termite bug, coreid bug, bat bug, toad bug, water strider, backswimmer, bedbug, stinkbug, water scorpion, plant bug, insects
What’s Bugging You?
Do you know what makes a bug a bug? Test your knowledge with this quiz.
DNA helix in a futuristic concept of the evolution of science and medicine.
Branches of Genetics
Microbial versus molecular? Behavioral versus evolutionary? Test your knowledge of the branches of genetic study with this...
Cluster of green ferns. Pteridophytes, plants, greenery, flora, tracheophytes.
Botany Basics: Fact or Fiction?
How much do you know about plants? Test your knowledge of botany with this quiz.
Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)with young, a semiaquatic mammal of Central and South America.(rodents, carpincho, water hog)
Capybaras
How much do you know about these giant lovable critters? Test your knowledge of capybaras with this quiz.
Image Gallery
Science
Never Miss a Day in History
Sign up for daily fun facts about this day in history, updates, and special offers delivered right to your inbox.

Science Subcategories

Neil Armstrong Astronomy
Human beings have always been fascinated by the celestial sphere above, whose twinkling lights have inspired many theories and artistic endeavors. Study of the solar system has provoked more than just peaceful meditation, however; a major controversy among astronomers arose in the 16th century when Copernicus publicly championed heliocentrism, a Sun-centric model of the solar system that was in direct opposition to Ptolemy's Earth-centered model, which had been generally accepted from the 2nd century CE onward. But humankind's fascination with the world beyond Earth has also led to some landmark moments in history, as when space exploration took a giant step forward with the advent of technology that allowed humans to travel to the Moon and to build spacecraft capable of exploring the rest of the solar system and beyond.
Articles
subcategory placeholder Biology
If it’s alive, biology will define it, study it, observe all its functions, follow its vital processes, and interact with it, all in order to understand the life that animates it. In one of biology's best-known examples of such studious investigation, Charles Darwin came up with his scientific theory of evolution by natural selection after systematically observing a variety of plants and animals; his work acted as the foundation upon which modern evolutionary theory is built. But biology’s principles also operate within a plethora of other related fields, including biochemistry, biomedicine, biophysics, and microbiology.
Articles
banded fire salamander (Salamandra terrestris) Birds, Reptiles & Other Vertebrates
Although it can be hard to imagine that a peacock and a crocodile have much of anything in common, these animals are actually descendants of the same prehistoric vertebrates. Birds are thought to have descended from carnivorous dinosaurs that began growing feathers by the Late Jurassic Period; thus, birds are technically one lineage of reptiles. This evolutionary link highlights the way in which seemingly incongruous creatures can, in fact, share a common ancestor (though that doesn't mean that we should expect waterfowl and crocodiles to become friends anytime soon).
Articles
microfauna Bugs, Mollusks & Other Invertebrates
Some insects are so displeasing to humans that the word "bug" has come to be used as a verb meaning "to bother or annoy." Yet, in addition to being critically important—because they naturally recycle decaying matter—in maintaining balance within the food chain, bugs can also be fascinating creatures, whether in regard to the water strider's ability to run across the surface of water or in regard to assassin bugs' varied and creative means of catching and killing their prey. Mollusks, another group of invertebrates, get less of a bad rap. Their ranks include nearly 100,000 described species of soft-bodied animals that are usually wholly or partly enclosed in a calcium carbonate shell; examples include snails, clams, oysters, squids, and octopuses.
Articles
Crustal abundances of elements of atomic numbers 1 to 93. Chemistry
How do you use raw plant materials to manufacture a best-selling perfume? How do you engineer household products that are compliant with environmentally-oriented guidelines? The answers to these questions require an understanding of the laws of chemistry, the science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, as well as the transformations that such substances undergo and the energy that is released or absorbed during those processes. Chemistry is also concerned with the utilization of natural substances and the creation of artificial ones. Over time, more than 8,000,000 different chemical substances, both natural and artificial, have been characterized and produced. Chemistry's vast scope comprises organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, and industrial chemistry, along with biochemistry, environmental chemistry, medicinal chemistry, and much more. Through the dedicated efforts of people such as Robert Boyle, Dmitri Mendeleev, John Dalton, Marie Curie, and Rosalind Franklin, the field of chemistry has led to exciting innovations as well as crucial advances in our understanding of how the world functions, starting with just the miniscule and unassuming atom.
Articles
seed fern Earth Science, Geologic Time & Fossils
Planet Earth has billions of years of history, from the time when it was an inhospitable ball of hot magma to when its surface stabilized into a variety of beautiful and diverse zones capable of supporting many life-forms. Many are the species that lived through the various geologic eras and left a trace of their existence in the fossils that we study today. But Earth is never done settling, as we can see from the earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and other phenomena manifested in Earth’s crust, oceans, and atmosphere.
Articles
Earth's 25 terrestrial hot spots of biodiversity Environment
Biological diversity is key to a healthy ecosystem, whether it’s a small biological community or the global biosphere. Ecology, which studies the relationships between organisms and their environment, is an invaluable science that helps us understand what allows an ecological community to thrive.
Articles
platypus Mammals
These are the animals to which humans tend to relate the most, perhaps because aspects of their behavior can sometimes resemble the way that we ourselves behave. The protective instinct of a mother bear, the gamboling way that kittens play, and the loyalty displayed by a dog are all traits that we can identify with in the course of our own lives. Mammals are well-equipped to handle different climates and biomes because of their ability to regulate their own body temperatures and internal environment, both in excessive heat and aridity and in severe cold.
Articles
subcategory placeholder Mathematics
Although stock portrayals of mathematicians often involve a studious person standing in front of a chalkboard that's covered with mind-bogglingly complex scrawled mathematical problems (call it the "Good Will Hunting" effect), the chaotic-looking equations may obscure the fact that mathematics is, at its heart, a science of structure, order, and relation that deals with logical reasoning and quantitative calculation. There's a method to all that madness! The history of mathematics can be traced back to ancient Mesopotamia, whose clay tablets revealed that the level of mathematical competence was already high as early as roughly the 18th century BCE. Over the centuries, mathematics has evolved from elemental practices of counting, measuring, and describing the shapes of objects into a crucial adjunct to the physical sciences and technology.
Articles
Rafflesia flower Plants
Life on Earth owes much to plants. The vast majority of plants carry out photosynthesis to transform light energy into chemical energy, which is the way that virtually all energy in the biosphere becomes available to living things (including us humans). As photosynthetic organisms, plants occupy the base of Earth's food webs and are consumed directly or indirectly by all higher life-forms, thereby functioning as the major source of food for humans and other animals. Plants' photosynthetic activity also produces the air that we breathe: almost all the oxygen in the atmosphere is due to the process of photosynthesis. Still not convinced about the merits of plants? Consider the fact that many plants not only serve up crucial nutrients and breathable air but also look good doing it. Many plants are admired for their striking aesthetic qualities, and flowers such as tulips, lilies, sunflowers, and daisies beautify fields, gardens, windowsills, and bouquets the world over. Plants are also a primary source of consumer goods, such as building materials, textile fibers, and pharmaceuticals.
Articles
Schematic diagram of a flotation separation cell. Physics
What’s the matter? The matter is our whole observable universe—with that material substance that constitutes it—and it is the subject of study of physics. The laws that govern motion observed by Newton, the gravitational force that regulates the progress of all celestial bodies, the interaction between subatomic particles, and the nuclear engineering that created the atomic bomb are examples of what this important discipline is all about. Minkowski’s space-time concept, which reformulated Einstein’s special theory of relativity, has bridged physics with philosophy in a conversation that has fascinated the modern concept of physics.
Articles
Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership
Learn More!