Question: What is the method of psychological therapy in which group discussions are used to create greater awareness of oneself and others?
Answer: Sensitivity training is a psychological technique in which intensive group discussion and interaction are used to increase individual awareness of self and others; it is practiced in a variety of forms under such names as T-group, encounter group, human relations, and group-dynamics training.
Question: According to Jean Piaget, what process goes through sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages?
Answer: Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget was the first to make a systematic study of the acquisition of understanding in children. He described children’s mental growth as moving through a sensorimotor stage during the first 2 years of life, a preoperational stage roughly from age 2 to age 6 or 7, a concrete operational stage from age 7 to age 11 or 12, and a period of formal operations beginning at age 12 and extending into adulthood.
Question: What term did James Braid introduce in the 1840s for a psychological state that previously was thought to be induced by animal magnetism?
Answer: James Braid was a British surgeon and a pioneer investigator of hypnosis who did much to divorce that phenomenon from prevailing theories of animal magnetism. In 1841 he developed a keen interest in mesmerism, as hypnotism was then called. Braid introduced the term hypnosis in his book Neurypnology (1843).
Question: Which psychologist developed the concept of the collective unconscious?
Answer: Carl Jungdeveloped the theory that certain experiences came from an area of the mind that he called the collective unconscious, which he held was shared by everyone.
Question: What movement in psychology rejected behaviourism and psychoanalysis as being too deterministic and instead advocated treating the person as a free individual able to direct their own behaviour?
Answer: Humanistic psychology grew in opposition to the two mainstream 20th-century trends in psychology, behaviourism and psychoanalysis. Humanistic psychologists believe that behaviourists are overconcerned with the scientific study and analysis of the actions of humans as organisms, and they also take issue with the deterministic orientation of psychoanalysis, which postulates that one’s early experiences and drives determine one’s behaviour. Humanists tend to believe that the individual is responsible for their life and actions and may at any time creatively change his attitudes or behaviour through awareness and will.
Question: Which eating disorder is characterized by periods of binging followed by inappropriate attempts to compensate for the binge, including induced vomiting?
Answer: Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by periods of binging (extreme overindulgence in food) followed by inappropriate attempts to compensate for the binge, including induced vomiting or excessive fasting.
Question: Who was the founder of child psychoanalysis?
Answer: Anna Freud was the Austrian-born British founder of child psychoanalysis and one of its foremost practitioners. The youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud, she brought into close contact developing psychoanalytic theory and practice.
Question: In the early 20th century, what name did Eugen Bleuler give to a group of mental illnesses that have in common symptoms such as hallucinations, disordered thinking, and a withdrawal from reality?
Answer: The Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler first advanced the term schizophrenia in 1908 in a paper based on a study of 647 patients. In subsequent published work he described a group of diseases, what today would be called schizophrenia, the basic symptoms of which were a disordered train of mental associations and splitting or fragmentation of the personality.
Question: What is the name for fear of open spaces?
Answer: Agoraphobia, a fear of open or public places, is an anxiety disorder commonly treated by exposure techniques.
Question: What is the name of the mental disorder in which one is subject to repetitive thoughts and actions?
Answer: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a type of mental disorder in which an individual experiences obsessions or compulsions or both. Obsessions are recurring or persistent thoughts, images, or impulses that, rather than being voluntarily produced, seem to invade a person’s consciousness despite his attempts to ignore, suppress, or control them.